IPMJ Virtual Issue selected by new Co-Editors: Lotte Bøgh Andersen and Gregg Van Ryzin International Public Management Journal

International Public Management Journal

Please enjoy free access to the below articles until the end of November.

Lotte Bøgh Andersen

Professor Andersen writes as follows about her papers in IPMJ:

Public organizations are constantly confronted with demands to manage and improve performance, and it is not easy to design interventions that motivate employees to optimize performance. Both economic incentives and command systems can have larger or smaller positive impacts on performance or even backfire, depending on whether intrinsic motivation to perform well is crowded out or in. Two effects are relevant. The price (disciplining) effect describes the direct tendency to do something you are rewarded for (or for command systems something you are not punished for doing), while the crowding effect concerns the indirect effect of interventions on performance, mediated by the employees’ intrinsic motivation. If an intervention is seen as supportive, motivation crowding theory (Frey, 1997; Frey and Jegen, 2001) expects performance to increase due to both price/disciplining and crowding effects, whereas these effects have different directions if the employees perceive the command system as controlling. If a lot of intrinsic motivation is crowded out by extrinsic factors, performance might even decrease due to the introduction of an intervention aimed at inducing employees to perform better (a negative crowding effect is higher than the positive price/disciplining effect). Whether crowding in or crowding out is expected depends on the perception of the intervention as controlling and supportive, and Andersen and coauthors (2008; 2015; 2017a, 2017b) investigate this in four different ways. First, Andersen and Pallesen (2008) show that the effect of publication bonuses on the number of published articles depends on the perception of this economic incentive, highlighting the relevance of analyzing the perception of internal interventions. Second, Andersen; Boye and Laursen (2017b) show that local managers can be very important for this perception among their employees. Specifically, both (1) transformational leadership and (2) use of contingent verbal rewards (praise) are positively associated with a supportive perception of the investigated external intervention (working hour rules). Third, Mikkelsen et al. (2017a) confirm the important of what managers do. For another external intervention (obligatory student plans as an example of a command system), they find that enforcement with hard, mixed, or soft actions at the school level affected both perception of the command system and employee motivation. Finally, Andersen, Kristensen and Pedersen (2015) illustrate the motivation crowding logic for another command system (documentation demands) and also link the perception of this system to (objectively measured) sickness absence. The four articles thus exemplify Andersen and her colleagues’ focus on governance structures, leadership, motivation and organizational performance, highlighting both complexity and general patterns in different public organizations. Andersen’s fifth IPMJ-article (Andersen and Kjeldsen 2013) illustrates another part of the agenda in the research team, namely the systematic comparisons between public and private organizations (here focused on the slightly different relationships between motivation and job satisfaction in the two types of organizations).

Gregg G. Van Ryzin

Professor Van Ryzin writes as follows about his papers in IPMJ

My research focuses on citizens and how they experience and judge government programs and services, with much of my work based on surveys and survey experiments. I am particularly interested in what factors shape citizens’ perceptions of government performance and their willingness to cooperate with government agencies. For example, my IPMJ article with Salvador Parrado, Tony Bovaird, and Elke Loeffler uses data from an original, five-nation survey we worked on together to measure specific co-production behaviors and to better understand the behavioral antecedents of coproduction.  And my IPMJ article with Ashley Grosso and Etienne Charbonneau uses an experimental design to examine how citizens respond to varying information about the outputs, outcomes and costs of a public health.